Hamburg-Altona Map, Germany 1910

Map taken from page 125
Source: "Northern Germany as far as the Bavarian and Austrian Frontiers; Handbook for Travellers" by Karl Baedeker. Fifteenth Revised Edition. Leipzig, Karl Baedeker; New York, Charles Scribner's Sons 1910

Por Carlos Solís
Satellite Image, Photo of Lake Saint Francis, Quebec

Lake St. Francis, Quebec, Canada November 1985. Located approximately 50 miles (80 kilometers) south of Quebec City, the Thetford Mines (a town and also the name given to the mining site) are visible in the center of the image (lighter color areas). These asbestos mines produce a large share of the world's supply. The lighter shaded areas within an otherwise forested landscape (darker areas) shows the extent to which the trees have been removed in this region either to expand available farm land or to furnish trees to the forestry industry. The elongated, dark feature (bottom center) is Lake St. Francis. Lake Aylmer (another dark feature--lower left) is southwest of the large lake. Lake Williams is the much smaller linear lake located north of the Thetford Mines site.
Source: National Aeronautics and Space Administration - NASA/JPL/NIMA

Por Carlos Solís
Wildfires and smoke in Central Alaska

Numerous large fires continue to burn in central Alaska, as an exceptionally warm, dry spring have kept firefighters’ hands full. this image is from May 25, 2002.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Por Carlos Solís
Duckweed in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

Duckweed forms green swirls atop Lake Maracaibo in northern Venezuela. The weed, more formally called Lemna obscura , began to grow on the lake sometime between January and March 2004. With an outlet to the Caribbean Sea, Lake Maracaibo is usually too salty to support duckweed and other similar aquatic plants. The lakes fresh water sits on top of a dense layer of salty water. The lower, salty layer traps nutrients at the bottom of the lake, depriving any potential surface plants of the nutrients they need to survive. This year, however, unusually heavy rain brought additional fresh water to the lake, which stirred the layers and allowed nutrients to float to the surface. It is also likely that the heavy rains brought the duckweed to the center of Lake Maracaibo. Since the plant doesnt normally grow on the lake, there was some question as to how it got there. The current hypothesis, according to Federico Troncone, the Head of the Water Quality Division of the Institution for the Conservation of Lake Maracaibo (a government research group charged with the study of Lake Maracaibo under the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources) is that the plants were carried from ponds on the edges of the lake, where they do grow, to the main body of Lake Maracaibo on stronger-than-normal currents. Normally, the plants that get washed into Lake Maracaibo die or their growth is limited by the lack of nutrients. This year, when the rains dislodged the plants and carried them to the center of the lake, the plants ended up in fertile waters. For a brief time, while nutrients were plentiful, the plants doubled in area every day. Then, as the lake began to settle back into its normal layers with nutrient-rich waters on the bottom instead of the top, the duckweeds growth slowed and eventually stopped. By the end of June, when this image was taken, the duckweed already covered less of the lake than it did at its height. In mid-May, the plant covered 14.5 percent of Lake Maracaibo, according to Eduardo Klein, the Director of the Institute of Marine Sciences and Technologies at Simon Bolivar University in Caracas, Venezuela. He and colleague Carlos Castillo based their analysis in part on MODIS images, such as the above, provided through collaboration with University of South Florida. By the end of August, the weed only covered 5.36 percent of the lake. The image acquired on December 17, 2003, shows the lake before the plant began to grow. While the duckweed appears to be dying down, scientists at ICLAM fear that heavy rains during the next few weeks could recreate the conditions that allowed the duckweed to grow in the first place. If that happens, the duckweed could begin to grow again. For more information, see Duckweed Invasion in Lake Maracaibo.
Source: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Por Carlos Solís
European Union countries GDP 2007

GDP (PPP) per capita of European Union countries in 2007 according to the International Monetary Fund

Por Carlos Solís
North Pole map 1885

North Pole map showing the international polar stations, 1882-1883.
Source: Scottish Geographical Magazine. Published by the Scottish Geographical Society and edited by Hugh A. Webster and Arthur Silva White. Volume I, 1885

Por Carlos Solís