Jan Mayen Island, Greenland Sea

Tiny Jan Mayen Island sits about 650 kilometers northeast of Iceland between the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Covering 373 square kilometers, the island is about twice the size of Washington, D.C. The white peak on the northeast section of the island is Beerenberg, the most northern active volcano. Beerenberg last erupted in 1985. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer ( MODIS ) on NASAs Aqua satellite captured this image on August 30, 2004.
Source: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Phytoplankton bloom in the Barents Sea

Phytoplankton form brilliant swirls of green in the Barents Sea north of Norway. Phytoplankton are microscopic marine organisms that thrive in nutrient-rich cold waters. The striking turquoise color is caused in part by sunlight reflecting off of chlorophyll in the phytoplankton, which (like terrestrial plants) use the process of photosynthesis to create carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. The brightness of the color indicates that the plants are probably coated with calcium carbonate, white chalk, which makes the water appear a bright blue in satellite imagery. Phytoplankton blooms are common in the Barents Sea in the summer, after winters ice has receded from the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)on NASAs Aqua satellite acquired this image on July 27, 2004.
Source: Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Svalbard, Norway

This MODIS true-color image shows the island of Svalbard, which is part of Norway, and is located east of Greenland and north of Norway.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

Phytoplankton bloom off Norway

The Barents Sea north of Norway was awash in colorful swirls of blue and green on July 19, 2003. This spectacular display of color reveals the biological richness of these cold, nutrient-rich waters—a bloom of tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The colors can be produced by a variety of pigments, including chlorophyll, that the plants use to harness sunlight for photosynthesis. The brightest blue color is sometimes the result of a kind of phytoplankton called a coccolithophore that has a calcium carbonate (chalk) covering. This chalky covering is bright white, and mixes with the blue reflection off the water to produce brilliant hues. Near the coast, the reflection coming back to the spacecraft may be mixed with sediment and other organic matter churned up by tides or washed out to sea by rivers. The influx of nutrients that comes from the outflow of rivers is one reason why phytoplankton blooms are common in coastal areas. Another reason is that coastal areas are often areas where cold water from deep in the ocean wells up to the surface and displaces surface waters that may have become depleted of nutrients by the growth of a previous generation of marine plants. This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured by the Aqua satellite.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Phytoplankton bloom off Norway

Turquoise swirls in the cool Barents Sea north of Norway are caused by a bloom of phytoplankton, microscopic plants that turn ocean waters bright blue and green when viewed from space. The bright blue color suggests that this bloom may be caused by coccolithophores, tiny plants coated in white calcium carbonate (chalk). The white plates reflect light, and through the blue reflectance of the water, turn the water the brilliant blue seen here. This image of the bloom was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite on August 1, 2004.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Svalbard, Arctic Ocean

On May 22, 2002, Svalbard, Norway, tucked inside the Arctic Circle, was showing no signs of spring on land, while in the Barents Sea, ice had begun retreating from the western coastline. This series of images shows the thawing of the sea ice around Svalbard, and also shows snow retreating from the landscape. Patches of brown are showing through, especially along fjords and inlets. Some images show blooms of marine plants called phytoplankton, which create colorful blue and green patterns on the ocean surface.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Svalbard, Arctic Ocean

The Svalbard Islands are located north of Norway, well within the Arctic Circle. The group of nine main islands was discovered in the 12 century by Norwegian explorers. They served as an international whaling base in the 17th and 18th centuries, but today they are governed by Norway. Many of the approximately 2800 people who live here are connected to coal-mining, the major industry of the islands. As this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows, the islands consist of rugged, ice-covered mountains. The Terra satellite captured this image on August 27, 2003.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Smoke from Saskatchewan fires (Canada) off Svalbard and Norway

Smoke (grayish swath in western half of image) from wildfires in Saskatchewan, Canada, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean, passed over Svalbard (top center) and arrived over the shores of Norway (bottom center) on July 11, 2002. Although fires were also burning in Québec, Canada, around the same time (which would seem to be the more likely source of the plume because it is closer) visual inspection of additional MODIS imagery over a span of several days shows that the plume most likely originated with the fires in Saskatchewan. The brighter, turquoise swirls in the otherwise dark waters of the Barents Sea at bottom right indicate the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. These microscopic marine plants contain chlorophyll and other pigments that are very reflective, and produce colorful patterns in the water. This true-color scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASAs Terra satellite.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Smoke from Saskatchewan fires (Canada) and Phytoplankyon bloom off Northern Norway

Smoke (grayish swath in western half of image) from the wildfires in Saskatchewan, Canada, has crossed the Atlantic Ocean and arrived over the shores of Norway on July 12, 2002. Although fires were also burning in Québec, Canada, around the same time (which would seem to be the more likely source of the plume because it is closer) visual inspection of additional MODIS imagery over a span of several days shows that the plume most likely originated with the fires in Saskatchewan. The brighter, turquoise swirls in the otherwise dark waters of the Barents Sea indicate the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. These microscopic marine plants contain chlorophyll and other pigments that are very reflective, and produce colorful patterns in the water. This true-color scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA.s Terra satellite.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

Smoke from Saskatchewan fires (Canada) off Svalbard and Norway

This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Image (MODIS) from July 12, 2002, provides a wider view of the smoke plume from fires in Saskatchewan, Canada, that drifted across the Atlantic Ocean, and then dipped southward across the Barents Sea toward Norway. At the top of the image, the smoke is passing over the western portion of Svalbard.
Source: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC